research basics

When conducting research, it is important to integrate your sources accurately into your paper. Research includes library research, internet research, field research, case studies, analyses of statitics and questionnaires. Research must be credited and documented according to established rules. Several styles have been adapted for different disciplines which notify readers when ideas other than your own have been used in your paper.

rjt library

Located on the Carol Harris Simms sculpture plaza, the Robert J. Terry library offers numerous services for students including open collections, special collections, electronic resources, private reading / study rooms and an open computer lab. Students can gain instruction and assistance with library resources at the reference desk or Ask a Librarian.

Coming soon: Tour the Library (Video Tour)

Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

Many different types of media can be documented as sources, including:

  • Published and unpublished writings
  • Statistics or facts that are not widely known
  • Images, such as artwork, charts, graphs, or advertisements
  • Interviews, letters, or e-mail letters
  • Television, movies, videos, or websites

You should always credit work that is not your own. Make sure to include an in-text citation and citation entry for all:

  • Direct quotes
  • Summaries
  • Paraphrases
mla

Formatting


The Works Cited page provides readers information on every work that you cited in your essay. This provides readers the ability to examine your supporting evidence. The Works Cited page will follow a similar format to your essay, being double-spaced with a standard 12-point font. The title of this section of your paper should be titled Works Cited, without quotations or underlining, centered at the top of the page.


Entries on your works cited page should be double-spaced, and utilize a hanging indent. To format your Works Cited page with hanging indent in Microsoft Word (2007) click Paragraph

Paragraph

Then under Special, select Hanging.

Hanging

Citation Entries


Books published by a single author provide the standard on which all other citations are made.


Single Author


Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Date of

     Publication.


Creel, Margaret Washington. A Peculiar People: Slave Religion and Community

     Culture Among the Gullahs. New York and London: New York University Press,

     1988.


Entries with multiple authors and/or alternative sources such as electronic databases, multi-volume works, edited works, or on-line sources will make additions or subtractions to this entry type based on information available.


When viewing the following examples, keep in mind that your source may not have all the required information, especially when selected from an on-line source. However, you should always review your citation entries to ensure that all available information is provided to the reader.


Two or Three Authors


Last Name of first author listed, First Name of first author listed and First Name of

     second author listed Last Name of second author listed. Title of Work. City:

     Publisher, Date of Publication.


Gross, Seymour L. and John Edward Hardy. Images of the Negro in American

     Literature. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1966.


Four or More Authors


Last Name of first author, First name of first author, et al. Title of Work. City:

     Publisher, Date of Publication.


Roark, James L., et al. The American Promise. Boston: Bedford, 1998.


Edited Book


Last Name of Editor, First Name of Editor, ed. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Date of

    Publication.


Anderson, Mary Crow, ed. Two Scholarly Friends: Yates Snowden--John Bennett

     Correspondence, 1902-1932Columbia, S.C.: U of South Carolina P, 1993.


Article from a Book or Collection


Last Name of Author of Article, First Name of Author of Article. "Title of Work

     Article." Title of Book. Ed. Name of Editor(s) of the Book. Edition number. City:

     Publisher, Date of Publication. Page numbers in the book where the article can

     be found.


Ortiz, Simon. "The Language We Know." Living Languages: Contexts for Reading

      and Writing. Ed. Nancy Buffington, Marvin Diogenes, and Clyde Moneyhun.

     Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. 40-47.


Online Databases


Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume and

     Issue Numbers (Year of Publication): Page numbers. Name of the Database.

     Web. Date of access.


Fabel, Robin F.A. "The Other War of 1812: The Patriot War and the American

      Invasion of Spanish East Florida." Alabama Review 57.4 (2004): 291-92.

      Proquest. Web. 8 Mar. 2005.


In-Text Citations


The in-text citation refers your reader to the correct reference listed in your Works Cited. MLA style requires the author's last name and page number(s) of the reference to appear in parentheses immediately before the period at the end of the sentence in which referenced material is used.


This can be done in one of two ways.


1. If the author's name is included in the sentence you may remove the author's name from the citation, and only include a page number.


Edward Ziter argues that "the pleasure of the theatrical harem (at least for the male audience) was the opportunity to imagine white European women assuming the position of the compliant and sensual Eastern woman" (75).


2. If the author's name is not included in the sentence, you will need to provide the author's name and the page number in your citation.


Estimates of South Carolina slave imports indicate that Gullah predecessors were primarily from West and Central Africa. From 1716 – 1807, slavery imports reflect that 39% of slaves were from Angola, 20% from Senegambia, 17% from the Windward Coast, and 13% from the Gold Coast (Pollitzer 43).

apa

American Psychological Association (APA) style is most frequently used in the social and behavioral sciences where emphasis is placed on date of the scholarship. APA style utilizes in-text citations and a References page. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition is the most recent guide published for APA style.


There are two components to properly citing sources:
1. References page
2. In-text citation


Formatting


The References page provides readers information on every work that you cited in your essay. This provides readers the ability to examine your supporting evidence. The References page will follow a similar format to your essay, being double-spaced with a standard 12-point font. The title of this section of your paper should be titled References, without quotations or underlining, centered at the top of the page.


Entries on your References page should be double-spaced, and utilize a hanging indent. To format your References page with hanging indent in Microsoft Word (2007) click Paragraph

Paragraph

Then under Special, select Hanging.

Hanging

Citation Entries


Books and journals published by a single author provide the standard on which all other citations are made.


Single Author

Book

Author Last Name, First Initial (and middle initial when available). (Year of

     publication) Title of work. City, State abbreviation: Publisher.

Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown &

     Company.

Journal

Author Last Name, First Initial (and middle initial when available) (Date of

     publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume number (issue number if

     available), page number(s).

Hastalis, D. (2003, January). Effects of prozac. New England Journal of Medicine,

     30.


Entries with multiple authors and/or alternative sources such as electronic databases, multi-volume works, edited works, or on-line sources will make additions or subtractions to this entry type based on information available.


When viewing the following examples, keep in mind that your source may not have all the required information, especially when selected from an on-line source. However, you should always review your citation entries to ensure that all available information is provided to the reader.


Two or More Authors

Book


Last Name of first author listed, First initial (and middle initial when available) &

     Last Name of second author listed, First initial (and middle initial when

     available) of second author listed. (Year of Publication). Title of work. City, State

     abbreviation: Publisher.


Edwards, M. & Titman, P. (2010). Promoting psychological well-being in children

     with acute and chronic illnessLondon, England: Jessica Kingsley.

Journal

Last Name of first author listed, First initial (and middle initial when available) &

     Last Name of second author listed, First initial (and middle initial when

     available) of second author listed. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of

     Journal, volume number (issue number if available), page number(s).

Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and

     outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal:

     Practice and Research59(4), 286-295. 


If the work has more eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by three ellipses points (…) and the last author's name.


Edited Book


Last Name of Editor, Initials of Editor, (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of work.

     City, State abbreviation: Publisher.


Anderson, M.C., (Ed). Two scholarly friends: Yates Snowden--John Bennett

     correspondence, 1902-1932. Columbia, S.C.: U of South Carolina P, 1993.


Chapter from a Book or Collection


Last Name of Author of Article, Initials of Author of Article. (Year of Publication).

     Title of Article. In Initials and Last Name of first editor & Initials and Last Name

     of second editor (Eds.), Title of Book. Ed. Name of Editor(s) of the Book. Edition

     number. City, State abbreviation: Publisher, Date of Publication (Page numbers

     in the book where the article can be found).City: Publisher.


Tollifson, J. (1997). Imperfection is a beautiful thing: On disability and mediation.

     In K. Fries (Ed.), Staring back (pp.105-112). New York, NY: Plume.


Online


Author Last Name, Author Initials, last names and initials of other authors if any.

     (Year, Month and Day). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume Number (Issue

     Number), Page numbers if given. Retrieved from URL address.


Schraw, G., & Graham, T. (1997). Helping gifted students develop metacognitive

     awareness. Roeper Review, 20, 4-8. Retrieved from http://web19.epnet.com.


In-Text Citations


The in-text citation refers your reader to the correct reference listed in your References page. APA style has different formats depending on whether or not you include the author's name in the text of your sentence, and if you are referencing part of the source, or the full source. Every citation will include the author's name and year of publication.


There are two ways to format a full-source citation depending on whether or not you include the author's name in the sentence.


1. If the author's name is included in the sentence you may remove the author's name from the citation, and only include the year of publication.


Burke (1997) determined that...


2. If the author's name is not included in the sentence, you will need to provide the author's name and the page number in your citation.


In one such study (Burke, 2003)...


If you are citing part of a source, such as a quotation, page numbers will need to be included in your citation. Once again, depending on whether or not you include the author's name in the sentence will determine the format of your citation.


1. If the author's name is included in the sentence, the year of publication will immediately follow the author's name in parentheses. However, your sentence will also include the page number(s) in a second set of parentheses immediately prior to the period at the end of the sentence.


Philip Thomas (1997) attempts to dispel this notion that "psychiatry, like medicine, [is] an area of knowledge unsullied by the complications of society and politics" (p. 4).


2. If the author's name is not included in the sentence, author's name, year of publication, and page number(s) will all appear immediately prior to the period of the sentence in parentheses.


One important study has examined the genetic issues involved in schizophrenia, indicating that there might be a marker for schizophrenia on chromosome 5 (Sherrington et al., 1989, p. 65).

Downloadable Content

Quick Reference Guide

Sample Paper

CitingIn-Text and in References

chicago

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS) is most frequently used in the humanities and social sciences where emphasis is placed on authorship and date of the scholarship. Chicago can utilize in-text citations or Footnotes / Notes Page. In addition to a Notes page, a Bibliography may also be used. The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition is the most recent guide published. Students may also benefit from the A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Disserations, 6th edition, more commonly referred to as Turabian.


This guide will provide information on formatting:
1. Footnotes / Notes Page (end-notes)
3. Bibliography


Formatting

The Bibliography page provides readers information on every work that you read or consulted in preparation for preparing your essay. Works listed on your bibliography do not have to be referenced in your final essay to be included. The Bibliography page will follow a similar format to your essay, being double-spaced with a standard 12-point font. The title of this section of your paper should be titled Bibliography, without quotations or underlining, centered at the top of the page.


Entries on your References page should be double-spaced, and utilize a hanging indent. To format your References page with hanging indent in Microsoft Word (2007) click Paragraph

Paragraph

Then under Special, select Hanging.

hanging

Some specialities, such as history, divide the Bibliography based on type of source, such as primary sources and secondary sources. For more information on formatting sections within a bibliography, see …..

Citation Entries


Books published by a single author provide the standard on which all other citations are made.


Single Author


Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Date of

     Publication.


Takaki, Ronald. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little,

     Brown and Company, 1993.


Entries with multiple authors and/or alternative sources such as electronic databases, multi-volume works, edited works, or on-line sources will make additions or subtractions to this entry type based on information available.


When viewing the following examples, keep in mind that your source may not have all the required information, especially when selected from an on-line source. However, you should always review your citation entries to ensure that all available information is provided to the reader.


Two or More Authors


Last Name of first author listed, First Name of first author listed and First Name of

     second author listed Last Name of second author listed. Title of Work. City:

     Publisher, Date of Publication.


Schor, Ira, and Paulo Freire. A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming

     Education. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987.


Edited Book


Last Name of Editor, First Name of Editor, ed. Title of Work. City: Publisher, Date of

     Publication.


Buffington, N., M. Diogenes, and C. Moneyhun, eds. Living Languages: Contexts for

     Reading and Writing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Blair Press, 1997.


Article from a Book or Collection


Last Name of Author of Article, First Name of Author of Article. "Title of Work

     Article." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor(s) of the Book, page

     numbers in the book where the article can be found. City: Publisher, Date of

     Publication. 


McPhee, John. "The Search for Marvin Gardens." In The Next American Essay,

     edited by John D'Agata, 9-20. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 2003.


Online Databases


Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume and

     Issue Numbers (Year of Publication): Page numbers. Date accessed. Permanent

     link.


Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving

     Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed

     February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


A DOI is a Digital Object Identifier. Not all websites/databases utilize DOI. Any permanent link is sufficient.


Footnotes / Notes Page (End-Notes)


Unlike in-text citations, footnotes provide readers the citation information on the same page as where the reference appears. Readers are referred to citation information by a superscript number 1 which correlates with a note at the bottom of the page. This number follows the period of the sentence in which the reference occurs. The note will include citation information that directs readers to the source. Papers utilizing footnotes are usually coupled with a bibliography.


The Notes page, commonly referred to as end-notes, is formatted in the same manner as footnotes. Instead of the note appearing at the bottom of the page, a listing of all notes is compiled at the end of the paper, appearing in numbered format. A superscript number in the text refers readers to the appropriate note. Papers with Notes pages may or may not include a bibliography.


Since Footnotes provide the same information as the citation found on a bibliography page, they have very similar formatting. Entries will begin with the author's full name, first name followed by last name. Items with the entry are separated with commas instead of periods throughout. Finally, the publishing information is enclosed in parentheses.


Sentence with reference.¹


1 Author First Name Author Last Name, Title of Work, (City: Publisher, Date), Page Number(s).


In order to enter footnotes with Microsoft Word go to the References tab

References

With the cursor following the period of the sentence containing your reference, click Insert Footnote

footnote

Microsoft Word will automatically insert the superscript number in the text, and begin a footnote. In addition, entries will be numbered sequentially automatically.


If you need a Notes page (end-notes) instead of footnotes, click Insert Endnote instead.

Endnote